I wanted to say that breaking a filter is MUCH cheaper then breaking a front element of a lens... But you already said that you will use filters.
Kinds of filters:
MC/Non MC - MC stands for Multi Coated. This coating reduces glass ability to reflect light so a multi coated filter of any kind is always better then a non coated as it gives less internal reflections which sometimes can be noticed. Additionally, MC filters are always made from better optical glass. So look for MC sign on your every filter.
Protection filter - just a clear glass. It just protects your lens from braking, from scratches, from dust, rain, snow, etc.
UV Filter - made from special glass with special coating which cuts UV specter of the light. This is done to achieve more natural colors on the pictures taken. BUT in most conditions (if you are not going to shoot on Everest) UV filter is just another name of protection filter, nothing more. Every camera has UV filter on it's sensor so in normal conditions you will not notice ant difference between UV filter and a simple protection filter. As long as they both high quality of course!
CPL (Polarizing filter). Made from special tourmaline-like glass, which allows passing through only to the waves of light that are polarized in one particular dimension. In real life all reflected light from clear surfaces are highly polarized (reflections from water, from while clouds, from glass, from cars, etc). CPL filter can be rotated to cut polarized light off. This allows taking pictures with more pronounced white clouds, with water without too strong reflections on it, e.t.c. This is not a must have filter, you can buy one to experiment with it to understand how it works.
ND - Neutral density. Just a dark glass, neutral dark. Just reduces light getting into your camera. Useful for taking pictures of waterfalls with the effect of flowing water. Usually used with a tripod. ND2 cuts half of light from camera, ND4 cuts 3/4 of light, e.t.c
ND2-400 Variable. These filters are actually made from 2 CPLs. You can rotate one of them and the filter gets darker and darker. Costs much more then usual NDs
The best ones are B+W and Rodenstock as far as I know. They are creepy expensive though... There are less expensive manufacturers that produce filters of great quality, like Kenko, Hoya, and even some Chinese manufacturers found on Ebay.
I hope that helped